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# Praxis 2 (5017) Term

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Abstract Method | The students matches the elements of a given group with abstract numbers. to represent three rabbits eating four carrots daily using the abstract method, the student would set up the problem as 3x4 |

Active Voice | When the subject of the verb is the doer of the action |

Acute Angle | An angle that measures less than 90 degrees |

Acute Triangle | Triangle with exactly three acute angles |

Adaptive Reasoning | Refers to logical thinking. Capacity to think logically about the relationships between concepts and situations. |

Addition | Is a binary operation. meaning it combines only two number at a time to produce a third unique number. adding two whole numbers always results in a whole number. An operation that when performed two numbers results in a sum |

Additive Identity/Identity Element of Addition | States that the number 0, when added to any number the sum is that of the other number. 2 + 0=2. therefore 0 is the additive identity or identity element of addition |

Adjacent | Two angles are adjacent if they share a common vertex. |

Algorithms | 2 addend + 3 addend= 5 sum 5 minuend- 3 subtrahend= 2 difference |

Allegory | A story in verse or prose with characters that represent virtues and vices |

Alternate Exterior Angles | Angles that lay outside the parallel lines and are on opposite sides of the transversal; They are congruent. |

Alternate Interior Angles | The interior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal are alternate interior angles. |

Angle | Two non collinear rays that have the same vertex; measured in degrees |

Area | Length x Width. Measure of the surface inside of the perimeter -- in square units. |

Associative Property | For addition and multiplication associating or grouping three or more addends or factors in a different way does not change the sum or product. example. (3+7)+5 equals the same as 3 +(7+5). division and subtraction are not associative. |

Automatic Reading | The development of strong orthographic representations, which allows fast and accurate identification of whole words made up of specific letter patterns |

Ballad | An in medias res story is told or sung, usually in verse, accompanied by music |

Base- 10 Place- Value Scheme | As we move to the left of any number, each place value is 10 times the place value to the right. Vise versa; example 543- 5 is in the 100s place. 4 is in the 10s place. 3 is in the 1s place. (10x or 10 divided by) |

Biography | Reading about real people |

Bloom's Taxonomy | 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation |

Cardinal Number | Counting, indicate quantity |

Classifying Objects In A Set | Allows students to sort material according to some specific criteria. for example: a student that is not able to count yet may sort objects according to size or whether it is hard or soft. |

Cognitive Approach of Language Acquisition | A language acquisition theory that states that child acquire knowledge of linguistic structures after they have acquired the cognitive structures necessary to process language |

Combination Arrangement | Where order does not matter |

Common Fractions | A fraction where both the top and bottom are whole numbers. |

Commutative Property | Addition and multiplication the order of addends does not determine the sum or product. example: a+b=b+a 6x9 and 9x6 both equal 54. Subtraction and division are not commutative. |

Comparing Objects In A Set | Students may compare objects in a set to objects in another set as a help in preparing for number skills. example: is there a chair for each toy bear? Does every child in the room a carton of milk? |

Complementary Angles | Is when the sum of two angles is 90 degrees. |

Complex Sentence | Made up of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause |

Composite Numbers | Most of our numbers are composite number because they are composed of several whole number factors. |

Compound Sentence | Made up of two independent clauses that are joined by a conjunction, a correlative conduction, or semicolon |

Comprehension Occurs | When readers are able to make predictions, select main ideas, and establish significant and supporting details of the story |

Concrete Method | The teacher allows the students to real objects to solve problems. manipulatives |

Congruent | If the measure of two angles are the same they are congruent. |

Congruent Polygons | Polygons with same size and shape |

Consecutive Exterior Angles | Angles which share the same side of the transversal and are outside the lines. |

Consecutive Interior Angles | Are the interior angles that lie on the same side of the transversal are called consecutive angles. |

Corresponding Angles | Angles that lie on the same side of the transversal in corresponding positions |

Counting Numbers | Are Whole Numbers, but without the zero. Because you can't "count" zero. So they are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... (and so on). |

Decimal Numbers | All decimal numbers are actually fractions. Are fractions written in special notation for example: .25 can be written as 1/4. |

Deductive Reasoning | Proceeds from general to specific. Teachers present material through lectures and students teach each other through presentations. |

Denominator | We call the bottom number the Denominator, it is the number of parts the whole is divided into. |

Descriptive Writing | Making an experience available through one of the five senses |

Developmental Approach for Teaching Spelling | Students go through several stages of development from invented spelling to conventional spelling |

Distributive Property | Of multiplication over addition example: 6 x 47 gives the same result as multiplying 6 x 40 and then 6 x 7. and then adding the products. 6 x 47 = (6 x 40) + (6 x 7). notation is a(b+c) = (a x b) + (a x c) |

Division | Can be represented to students in two ways: measurement and partition. It has the same inverse relation to multiplication as subtraction does to addition. 36 / 9 = 4 teaching division should be parallel to multiplication. |

Drama Plays | (comedy, modern, or tragedy) that are typically performed in five acts |

Editing | A stage of the writing process where students continue to make changes to a draft, enhancing the ideas rather than altering or changing them |

Epic | A long poem usually of book length that reflects values inherent in the generative society |

Epistle | A letter that is not always originally intended for public distribution, but due to the fame of the sender and/or recipient, one that becomes public domain |

Essay | A limited length prose work focusing on a topic and propounding a definite point-of-view and authoritative tone |

Even Numbers | Are those that can be equally divided by 2. |

Expanded Notation | Can show the value of each number in its place. 543 - the values are (5x[ 10 x 10 ] + (4 x [10 x 1] ) + (3 x 1). which is taught as 500 + 40 + 3 |

Exponential Notation | Can show the value of each number. 543- the exponential values are (5 x 10^2) + (4 x 10^1) + (3 x 10^0). |

Expository Writing | A form of writing where the only purpose is to inform |

Exterior Angles | The angles outside two lines that are crossed by a transversal |

Fable | A terse tale offering up a moral or exemplum; Animals that act like humans are featured in these stories; the animals usually reveal human foible or teach a lesson |

Factors | Are any of the numbers or symbols in math that, when multiplied together form a product. for example: the whole number factors or 12 are: 1,2,3,4,6, and 12. 1x 12 = 12 2 x 6 = 12 3 x 4 = 12 |

Folktales/Fairy Tales | Adventures of animals or humans and the supernatural; hero is usually on a quest aided by other-worldly helpers |

Formative Assessment | A formal or informal way for a teacher to judge how well the students have mastered the objectives of a given assignment or lesson |

Future Perfect Tense | Expresses action that started in the past or the present and will conclude at some time the future |

High Frequency Words | Words most often used in the English language |

Higher Cognitive Questions | Open-ended, interpretive, evaluative, and inferential questions |

Historical Fiction | Provides the opportunity to introduce younger children to history in a beneficial way |

Hydrology | The scientific study of the properties, distribution and effects of water on the earth's surface, in the soil and underlying rocks and in the atmosphere. |

Intersect | Lines have a point or points in common |

Inductive Reasoning | Proceeds from specific to general. the teacher first introduces a concept and using inferences from the data the students develop generalizations. |

Inequalities | A mathematical sentence involving <, >, or = plus < or > |

Informal and/or Authentic Science Assessment | Teacher observation and questioning; journals and/or logs; interviews and conferences; group and peer assessment; self-assessment; performance-based samples such as portfolios, project learning, and student work; comparing and contrasting |

Informal and/or Authentic Social Studies Assessment | Teacher observation and questioning; interviews and conferences; assessment; performance- based: portfolios, project learning, oral reports, student work; comparing/contrasting; organizing data; problem solving; critical thinking; model building |

Informal Geometry | Provides students with concepts/skills necessary for: finding the perimeter, area, surface area and volume of common geometric figures graphing equations on the coordinate system and deriving the equation for the third line from a pair of points |

Informational Books | Ways to learn more about something that children are interested in or something that they know little about |

Inquiry or Discovery Lessons | Are inductive in nature. It starts with a thought provoking question for which students are interested in finding the answer. |

Instructional Reading Level | Generally judged to be at the 95% accuracy level |

Integers | Are like whole numbers, but they also include negative numbers ... but still no fractions allowed! So, integers can be negative {-1, -2,-3, -4, -5, ... }, positive {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... }, or zero {0} |

Interior Angles | When two lines are crossed by a transversal they form eight angles. the four angles that lie between the two lines are called the interior angles. "inside the lines" |

Irrational Numbers | All numbers that are not rational are considered irrational. Can be written as a decimal, but not as a fraction. An irrational number has endless non-repeating digits to the right of the decimal point. Here are some irrational numbers: 0, Pi - 3. 14... |

Isosceles Triangle | Triangle with two sides of the same length |

Jacob Kounin's Classroom Management Theory | Believed teachers have the ability to affect student's behavior through instructional management. 4 characteristics that a teacher needs 1. With-it-ness 2. Over-lapping activities 3. Maintenance of Group Focus 4. Movement management |

Learning Approach of Language Acquisition | A language acquisition theory that assumed that language development evolved from learning the rules of language structures and applying them through imitation and reinforcement |

Legend | A traditional narrative or collection of related narrative, popularly regarded as historically factual but actually a mixture of fact and fiction; similar to myths except they tend to deal with events that happened more recently |

Life Science | Characteristics of organisms, life cycles of organisms, organisms and environment |

Linguistic Approach of Language Acquisition | A language acquisition theory that states that language ability is innate and develops through natural human maturation as environmental stimuli trigger the acquisition of syntactical structures appropriate to each exposure level |

Literacy Portfolios | A student assessment strategy where students collect all of their reading and writing products so that teachers can track growth |

Literature Circles | A student centered reading activity in which each member of the group is assigned a role as the group discusses what they have read |

Lower Cognitive Questions | Those that ask the student merely to recall verbatim or literally the material previously read or taught by the teacher |

Market Economy | An economic system in which people choose freely what to buy and sell |

Mastery Lecture Deductive Method | By teacher presents info. to the students. Advantage: teachers can present large amounts of info. in an efficient amount of time. Lectures should be short and interrupted by student questions. Teacher should use lower and higher level thinking questions. |

Math Problem-Solving | Investigating and understanding content, formulating problems from everyday situations, verifying and interpreting results, identifying and solving problems that are developmentally appropriate |

Meteorology | Study of Earth's atmosphere and weather |

Metric Units | A measurement system that measures length in millimeters, centimeters, meters, and kilometers; capacity in liters and milliliters; mass in grams and kilograms; and temperature in degrees Celsius |

Misconceptions | Invalid concepts that students construct using their experiences, expectations, beliefs, and emotions. |

Miscue Analysis | A way of acquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studying the mistakes (miscues) they make when reading aloud. |

Modern Fantasy | The stories are based in reality, which makes it easier for the reader to suspend disbelief and enter into worlds of unreality |

Modern Realistic Fiction | Stories about real problems that real children face |

Morphology | The study of the structure of words |

Multiples | Of any whole numbers are the results of multiplying that whole number by the counting numbers. Every whole number has an infinite number of multiples. example 7x1=7, 7x2=14,7x3=21,7x4=28. the multiples of 7 are 7,14,21,28 and so on. |

Multiplication | Is a binary operation. the result of the operation is a product. 4 x 9 = 36. the product is 36 |

Multiplication Property of 0 | States that when a factor is multiplied by 0, then the product is 0. 3 x 0 = 0 |

Multiplicative Identity Property of 1 | Any number multiplied by 1 remains the same. 34x1= 34 |

Multiplicative Inverse | A number times its multiplicative inverse is equal to 1; also called reciprocal |

Myth | Stories that are more or less universally shared within a culture to explain its history and traditions; stories about events from the earliest times, often considered true among various societies |

Narrative Writing | Writing that is arranged chronologically |

Natural Numbers | "Natural Numbers" can mean either "Counting Numbers" {1, 2, 3, ...}, or "Whole Numbers" {0, 1, 2, 3, ...}, depending on the subject. Include the set of counting numbers 1,2,3,4,5.... and the set of whole numbers 0,1,2,3,4,5.... |

Net | Two-dimensional figure that can be cut out and folded up to make a three-dimensional solid |

Novel | The longest form of fictional prose containing a variety of characterization, settings, local color, and regionalism |

Number Concepts | Words, symbols, quantity, counting patterns, number is a concept that indicates how many. |

Number Sense | The ability to understand numbers and their relationships |

Number Theory | The study of numbers and the relationships between them |

Numeral | Is a symbol used to represent a number. |

Numerator | We call the top number the Numerator, it is the number of parts you have. Numerator/Denominator |

Obtuse Angle | An angle that measures more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees |

Odd Numbers | Are those that cannot be equally divided by 2. |

Onset and Rime | Onset is the initial sound unit of any word and the rime is the stream of letters that follow “onset and rime stop after the first vowel” |

Operations | Indicate what one does which any given group of numbers. |

Ordinal Number | Indicate the order of things, ex: first, second |

Orthographic Awareness | The ability to perceive and recall letter strings and word forms, as well as the retrieval of letters and words |

Orthography | The art of writing words with the proper letters. The conventional spelling system of a language |

Parallel | Lines do not intersect. |

Passive Voice | When the subject of the verb is the receiver of the action |

Past Perfect Tense | Expresses action or a condition that occurred as a precedent to some other past action or condition |

Patterning Objects In A Set | Arranging objects in a set to a duplicate a pattern. for example: red, yellow, red, yellow, or 2,4,6,8... |

Perimeter | The distance around a figure. |

Permutation | Arrangement where order matters |

Persuasive Writing | A piece of writing, poem, play or speech whose purpose is to change the minds of the audience members or to get them to do something |

Phonemic Awareness | Ability to hear and manipulate individual phonemes. Includes the ability to hear and manipulate larger units of sound such as onsets and rimes and syllables. Acknowledgement of sounds and words; sounds in words that are spoken |

Phonics | The connections between the sounds and letters on a page |

Physical Education Concepts | Exercise, physical fitness, game and sport kills, safety, locomotor patterns, body management, social discipline, healthy lifestyles |

Physical Science | Physical and chemical changes; temperature and heat; sound; light; electricity and magnetism; force, motion, and energy; matter; astronomy |

Plane | A flat two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely in all directions. |

Poem | Rhythm |

Point | A specific location, taking up no space, having no area, and represented as a dot. |

Point-of-view | The perspective of the text |

Polygons | A closed figure, all straight lines, and no intersecting lines. |

Pre-Number Concepts | Matching, sorting, comparing, ordering |

Present Perfect Tense | Expresses action or a condition that started in the pass and in continued or completed in the present |

Prewriting | A stage of the writing process during which the students gather ideas; this stage may include clustering, listing, brainstorming, mapping, free wiring, and charting |

Primary Sources | Eyewitness accounts of history. They include letters, diaries, speeches, and interviews. |

Prime Numbers | Are numbers with only two whole number factors. 1 and itself. the first few are. 2, 3, 5,7,11,13, 17, 19…1 x 2 = 2, 1 x 3 = 3... they are always odd numbers. |

Print Awareness | The realization that writing is create with instruments such as pens, pencils, crayons, and markers |

Prior Knowledge | All of an individual's prior experiences, education, and development that precede his or her entrance into a specific learning situation or his or her attempts to comprehend a specific text |

Proofreading | A stage of the writing process where grammatical and technical errors are addressed |

Properties of Operations Rules | That help us add, subtract, multiply and divide effectively and efficiently |

Property of Reciprocals | The product of any number multiplied by its reciprocal is one. 5/1 x 1/5= 1 the fives cancel out |

Proportion | Says that two ratios (or fractions) are equal. |

Prosody Concerns | Versions of original text and involves such matters as which syllable of a word is accented |

Prosody | The patterns of stress and intonation in a language |

Psycholinguistic | The study of how language is acquired, perceived, understood, and produced. |

Psychomotor Domain | Includes abilities related to physical prowess ranging from reflexes through basic motions such as catching and throwing a ball, to skilled motions such as playing tennis, or playing the piano. |

Publishing | A stage in the writing process where students may have their work displayed on a bulletin board, read aloud in class, or printed in a literary magazine or school anthology |

Purpose | Comes in to play when considering that while someone may completely understand the message, they must also know what to do with it |

Pythagorean Theorem | a^2+b^2=c^2. the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. |

Qualitative Change | Change in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication |

Quantitative Change | Change in number or amount, such as in height, weight, or size of vocabulary |

Rates | A comparison of two quantities with different units |

Ratio Notation | Is an alternative method for showing fractions. example: 2/5 can be expressed as the ratio of 2 to 5. written as 2:5 |

Rational Numbers | Can be written as a ratio or fraction. in which both the numerator (the number on top) and the denominator (the number on the bottom) are whole numbers. 1/2. 3/4. 5/6. |

Reading Fluency & Comprehension Include | Orthographic awareness, semantic cueing, syntactic cueing |

Real Numbers | Are all numbers that can be represented by points on the number line. zero, irrational, rational, and negative or positive, decimals |

Receptive Vocabulary | Comprehension vocabulary used by a person in silent reading and learning |

Regrouping | In addition a process once called carrying. it is used in problems such as 26+ 6, 16+7. In multiplication occurs in problems such as 268 x 26 = 6968. In subtraction a process once called borrowing used in problems such as 23-7. |

Regular Polygon | A polygon with all sides and all angles are equal |

Regular Rectangle | A polygon in which all sides have equal lengths and all angles have equal measures. |

Regular Triangle | All congruent sides and angles. |

Retelling | A comprehension assessment strategy in which the student retells a story that they have read to highlight the main themes |

Revision | A stage of the writing process where students examine their work and make changes in wording, details, and ideas |

Right Angle | An angle that measures 90 degrees |

Romance | A highly imaginative tale set in a fantastical realm that deals with the conflicts between heroes, villains, and/or monsters |

Scaffolding | Strategies to support students' progress toward independent proficient reading provide access to grade-level texts, purposeful grouping, close reading |

Schemata | The plural of schema, those structures that represent generic concepts stored in our memories |

Science Fiction | Robots, spacecraft, mystery, and civilizations from other ages |

Scientific Method | A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions. |

Secondary Sources | Commentaries, summaries, reviews, or interpretation of primary sources to provide new insights or historical perspectives |

Semantic Cueing | Determining the meaning of the word, phrase, or sentence |

Semantics | The meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text |

Semi abstract | The students work with one symbol to represent objects. such as using tally marks |

Semi concrete | The students work with visual representations, pictures, instead of actual objects. |

Set | Is a collection of things real, or imagined, related or unrelated, students may manipulate the objects within the set in various ways. |

Short Story | A concise narrative that has less background than a novel, but that typically includes many of the same plot developments and techniques |

Sight Words | Words that the reader learns to era spontaneously either because of frequency or lack of conformity to orthographic rules |

Signal Words | Words that indicate that a list, contrast, or connection is about to be made. Cause/Effect, Compare/Contrast, Description, Problem/Solution (the question is, one answer is) Sequence/Chronological Order (next, then before, after) |

Simple Sentence | Contains one independent clause |

Skip Counting | They may start with 1 and count only the odd numbers. 1,3,5,7,9 |

Sociocognitive Approach of Language Acquisition | A language acquisition theory that states that the different aspects of linguistic, cognitive, and social knowledge are interactive elements of total human development |

Sociolinguistic | How language and its use is shaped by a society or culture. |

Spread | A program that allows you to use rows and columns of data to manage, predict, and present information. |

Standard Deviation | The square root of the variance |

Standard Units of Measurement | A system of measurement for linear, mass, and liquid (ft, yd, lb, oz, cup, gallon) |

Steps of Problem Solving | Understand the problem, devise a plan, carry out the plan, look back |

Straight Line | 180-degree angle |

Structural Analysis | The process of using familiar word parts to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words |

Structured Language Approach for Teaching Spelling | Involves an in-depth focus on letter/sound relationships and progresses through letters, phonemes, blended syllables, to whole words |

Style | The artful adaption of language to meet various purposes |

Subtraction | Is the inverse of addition. is a binary operation. |

Sum of Squares | Sum of the squares of the differences between each item and the mean |

Summative Assessment | Evaluation at the conclusion of a unit (multiple choice, true/false, constructed response) |

Supplementary Angles | Is the sum of two angles is 180 degrees |

Symmetry | A plane figure that can be folded along a line so the two parts match. |

Syntactic Cueing | Evaluating a word for its parts of speech and its place in the sentence |

Syntax | The rules of patterned relationships that correctly create phrases and sentences from words |

Systematic Instruction | Teaching a set of useful sound/spelling relationships in a clearly defined, carefully selected, logical instructional sequence |

Tall Tales | Purposely exaggerated accounts of individuals with superhuman strength |

Teaching Methods | Activating learning, projects, guided discovery, problem solving, exposition and direct instruction, games, situations and recreations, investigations |

The Shared Book Experience | Teachers use big books. includes introduction (pre-reading) ask predictive questions. read story with dramatic punch and point to text (tracking of print). Have discussion, reread on subsequent days with the whole group |

First Person | "I" and "Me" standpoint. Personal perspective. |

Third Person | Narrator is not a character, but sees the world through only ONE character's eyes and thoughts |

Their Person Omniscient | The narrator is not a character in the story but knows what all of the characters are thinking along with the events that happen |

Third Person Objective | The narrator is an outsider who can report only what he or she sees and hears. This narrator can tell us what is happening, but he can't tell us the thoughts of the characters. |

Tone | The attitude an author takes toward his or her subject |

Traditional Approach for Teaching Spelling | Adheres strictly to a phonics-based approach to spelling |

Traditional Literature | Opens up a world where right wins out over wrong, where hard work and perseverance are rewarded, and where helpless victims find vindication |

Traits/Elements of Writing | Style, tone, point-of-view |

Translation | A transformation that slides an object a fixed distance in a given direction |

Transversal | If a third line intersects two intersecting lines at the same point of intersection the third intersecting line is called a transversal. |

Variance Sum | Of the squares quantity divided by the number of items |

Vertex | Point at which the rays meet on an angle |

Vertical Angles | If two lines intersect they form two pairs of vertical angles. |

Vocabulary Self-Collection | A student-centered strategy in which children, even from grade two, take responsibility for their vocabulary learning |

Volume | Refers to how much space is inside a three dimensional, closed container |

Whole Language Approach for Teaching Spelling | Supports that idea that student learns to spell by remembering what the words looks like rather than by remembering how it sounds |

Whole Numbers | Are simply the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... (and so on) ; are the counting numbers. 0,1,2,3,4,5... |

Word Families | A collection of words that share common orthographic rimes, such as HIKE, BIKE, LIKE, etc. |

Word Map Strategy | A comprehension assessment strategy features teacher-directed learning children are "walked through" the process of identifying type of information that makes a definition. Assisted in using context clues & background understanding to construct meaning |

Albert Bandura | Social-congnitive; personality comes from observing others and modeling ourselves after them. |

Bloom's Taxonomy | A system for categorizing levels of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. Includes the following competencies: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. |

Coordinate Geometry | a mix of geometry and algebra; in this field of mathematics, geometric figures are placed on the coordinate plane, and then studied using algebra. |